In today’s tight budgetary climate, Chief Information Officers (CIOs) are being called on to find innovative ways to use technology to perform operations faster and more effectively. Those we interviewed are looking to the cloud and modular development to help them achieve these results. All survey participants responded that their agency has adopted or is planning to adopt a cloud-based solution, but only 8 percent are where they want to be.
Modular development, especially based on the Agile methodology, continues to gain steam, with most CIOs reporting that Agile is being used somewhere in their organization. Some Agile projects are producing dramatic results in speed of delivery and customer satisfaction. In the area of mobility, more than half of those surveyed commented they were near or exactly where they want to be in regards to telework, but have a ways to go in being able to deliver digital services to their stakeholders.
As delivery of smaller, Agile applications are becoming more widespread, delivery of grand-scale programs are becoming the exception, not the rule, with good reason. CIOs explained that management of large IT programs “more often than not leads to cost overruns and schedule slippages.”
When it comes to data analytics, government respondents expressed a higher level of confidence in the reliability and quality of their data than in the past, especially under the domain for which the data was created. However, they continue to report that their data is siloed and not easily accessible across the enterprise and across different domains.
It comes as no surprise that cybersecurity remains a top concern for those we interviewed. With the ever-increasing proliferation of networks, devices and applications, there has been a corresponding increase in both the number and sophistication of cyber threats. Twenty eight percent of respondents noted a 51-100 percent increase in cyber threats to their respective organization in the past year. Unfortunately, competing for the top cybersecurity talent to protect information systems continues to be difficult for federal agencies.
CIOs are also focused on the need to streamline acquisitions, adoption of shared services and workforce development. The adoption of category management is aimed at enabling the federal government to buy smarter and act more like a single enterprise by identifying core categories of spend, sharing best practices, and providing more streamlined solutions. To further stretch their resources, an overwhelming majority of CIOs we interviewed are currently using or plan to implement some form of shared services. CIOs are also taking the lead in building a future-ready workforce by adopting newer technologies aimed at attracting fresh, forward-thinking candidates.
This is the 25th Anniversary of the federal government CIO community survey, sponsored and led by the Professional Services Council (PSC) and Grant Thornton LLP. In 2015, 67 information technology (IT) leaders participated, including CIOs of major federal departments and staff from OMB and Capitol Hill. Professionals from over 30 firms conducted the interviews.
The 25th survey of CIOs, CISOs, and key IT executives in the federal government saw the role of the CIO evolving into one that must not only support mission critical functions, but also expand to address innovation in providing services to meet that mission. Since our first survey, IT has progressed from mainframes, personal computers and floppy disks to a highly complex landscape of managed services, integrated mobile workforces, scalable technology and persistent cybersecurity threats.
Responding to the requirements of this new technology environment, in late December 2014, the Federal Information Technology Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) was enacted. Aimed at making the CIO a more strategic player, these federal executives must now further evolve their tactics regarding how they integrate mission, innovation, technology, services and people. This year’s survey reflects their ever increasing role. Our discussion is grouped around the top priorities and challenges faced by today’s CIO: innovation, integration, protection and leadership.
It’s clear from this year’s 25th anniversary survey that CIOs and other federal IT executives are poised to become the innovative leaders of a future federal government that is more responsive, nimble and cost-effective than ever before in our nation’s history.
Federal IT Overview
Each year, we begin the survey with an open-ended question to uncover the top priorities and challenges facing CIOs. Cybersecurity, revitalizing the workforce, modernizing the IT environments, acquisition, and mobility were cited as the top priorities.
1. Cybersecurity: Cybersecurity remains the top priority for CIOs. The internal and external cybersecurity threat continues to evolve as the sophistication of “bad actors” increases. This requires continuous vigilance to protect multiple layers of technology across distributed endpoints and devices. CIOs agreed they have made great strides improving their detection of the threat, but caution agencies must continue to invest in recruiting and training a cybersecurity workforce to detect, understand and respond to the ever-changing threat. Better information sharing of the threat is also a priority.
2. Revitalizing the Workforce: CIOs remain focused on staffing the overall IT workforce with personnel who have the right skillsets. They acknowledge they must navigate through a number of challenges to do this, including: a complex hiring process, hiring freezes, gaps in competitive pay with the private sector, and the difficulty of locating individuals with the right skillsets and knowledge needed to transform and modernize the IT environment. One CIO noted the need to invest adequately in continuing to develop the top talent in the current workforce through effective training programs. CIOs also cited the need for continuous focus on attracting and retaining the technology workforce of the future as a crucial issue for the federal government. For every federal IT worker under 30, there are 10 over 50, and the average age of the technology workforce continues to increase. In addition, workers under 30 are significantly less likely to stay in the government for the long-term than their predecessors did.
3. IT Modernization: Modernizing the IT environment remains another top priority among CIOs. CIOs are looking to better meet the needs of end users and change the structure around IT solutions. This includes increasing efficiencies by creating acquisition plans and business cases to drive new investments that reduce redundancies in the IT space. Yet, many agencies still suffer from an over reliance on legacy systems. As an example, the Department of Defense spends approximately 80 percent on its legacy business systems and only 20 percent on developing the next generation of business solutions.
4. Acquisition: CIOs acknowledged the difficulty of keeping up with changing technology in a contracting environment that often limits flexibility and access to industry best practices and solutions. The federal contracting workforce has experienced tremendous turnover in recent years. In fact, half of today’s federal contracting workforce has less than 10 years’ experience and half of this group, 25 percent of the workforce, has less than 5 years’ experience. This, coupled with an incentive structure that is not always tied to mission results may in part explain why IT acquisition continues to be cited by CIOs as a top challenge. Many CIOs feel that restrictive contracting practices hamper the Government’s ability to take advantage of the innovative solutions that companies have to offer.
5. Mobility: CIOs are committed to ensuring a seamless experience for employees who require “access anywhere, anytime.” One CIO noted that a “strong teleworking capacity is key to attracting and retaining talent, especially from industry and academia.” Most CIOs felt they had made significant improvements to enable their employees to work remotely. However, they qualified this by highlighting that employees typically conducted this work via government-issued laptops, not tablets or mobile devices. The next phase of activity is expanding the ability of employees to perform additional work functions on mobile devices. This will include making more legacy systems and applications mobile-enabled. CIOs also expressed that they had taken steps toward increasing how they interact with their customers through digital services and anticipated some breakthrough developments in this area in the next few years.
Respondents also identified other priorities, such as effectively spending Government money on IT contracts, increasing use of cloud services, implementing reliable, customer-focused technology, and executing a digital strategy. CIOs cited the flow of funding within the current budget environment, the culture and change management within each Federal agency, mobility, and governance as additional challenges.
How the Federal IT Budget is Being Spent
The FY16 Analytical Perspectives volume of the President’s FY16 Budget Request, showed a $2.4 billion, or 2.9 percent, increase in total Federal IT spending from FY14 to FY15. However, this growth was not evenly spread, with DoD IT spending dropping $1.1 billion (-3.1 percent) but non-Defense IT spending growing $3.5 billion (7.9 pecent). Over the past 5 years, total federal IT spending has enjoyed steady, if modest, growth, with a 2.4 percent compound annual growth rate (CAGR) from FY11 to FY15 (which includes the substantial drop of $2.4 billion (-3 percent) seen from FY12 to FY13.) But again, this growth differed greatly between DoD (.6 percent CAGR from FY11 to FY15) and non-Defense (3.9 percent CAGR.)
The President’s FY16 Budget Request also included IT growth for FY16, with both DoD and non-Defense IT spending proposed to be increased by more than 2 percent. However, at the time of publication, disagreements between Congress and the President on spending levels prevent much clarity into where FY16 IT funding will ultimately land.
New Spending vs. Sustainment
Each year, we ask CIOs and CISOs to provide their best estimate of the percent of spending they allocate to investing in development and modernization (DME) versus operation and maintenance (O&M) on legacy applications and infrastructure. Like last year, several CIOs indicate they are spending more for DME than in previous years, but this estimate showed a modest decline over last year.
CIOs pointed out that it’s becoming increasingly difficult to segregate these items from one another. “Many of our smaller DME projects are being done in the cloud now, blurring the lines between DME and O&M.” When asked how they see the breakdown between O&M and DME in three years, all stated they expected to see increases in DME and declines in O&M. CIOs seem to agree that PortfolioStat has helped improve their understanding of IT spending within their organizations and felt this would continue to improve under FITARA. One CIO said he set a goal of reducing O&M and infrastructure spending to 40 percent in three years.
FITARA and the Role of the CIO: The Federal IT Acquisition Reform Act (FITARA) was enacted on December 19, 2014 and represents the most significant federal IT reform since the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996. The proposed FITARA guidance aligns with the Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) core objectives across the Federal IT portfolio to (1) drive value in Federal IT investments, (2) deliver world-class digital services, and (3) protect Federal IT assets and information. We asked CIOs to comment on how this new law would impact them and to also provide feedback on the OMB guidance released for comment in April 2015. CIOs across the board were supportive of the passage of the law and the guidance. Most felt that the law memorializes practices in governance and collaboration that are already occurring today. All CIOs also agreed that it will take time to fully understand the impacts of this law and felt that agencies will take different approaches to its implementation. As one might expect, the perspective on FITARA and how it should be implemented varied based on whether the CIO was at headquarters or within an operating component.
Federal agencies will need to thoughtfully consider what operations are best suited for consolidation at the enterprise level to ensure interoperability and operational efficiencies and what operations are best left at the local level to foster speed, manageable scope and customer engagement. Regardless of the exact distribution of enterprise vs. local work, FITARA will still help to provide CIO visibility and engagement on the pressing technology issues of the agency. The key to success will be to use FITARA to bring together all stakeholders in the C-Suite to create an integrated IT budget approval process that all C-Suite stakeholders are part of, rather than the CIO creating a separate budget approval process.
Federal agencies will need to thoughtfully consider what operations are best suited for consolidation at the enterprise level to ensure interoperability and operational efficiencies and what operations are best left at the local level to foster speed, manageable scope and customer engagement. Regardless of the exact distribution of enterprise vs. local work, FITARA will still help to provide CIO visibility and engagement on the pressing technology issues of the agency. The key to success will be to use FITARA to bring together all stakeholders in the C-suite to create an integrated IT budget approval process that all C-Suite stakeholders are part of, rather than the CIO creating a separate budget approval process.
Evolving Roles of the CIO
CIOs continue to see their role changing. CIO roles continue to vary across government, from an infrastructure/operations focus to driving strategic decision-making and using technology to help make innovation a reality across the enterprise. Many CIOs are focused on helping stakeholders access the information they need to accomplish the mission of the department. This in turn helps drive better decision-making. It was clear, though, that the only way a CIO can serve as a credible innovator and IT strategist is to ensure IT delivery is cost effective and operating as intended. One CIO commented, “Real authority comes from legitimacy, being able to deliver on what you say. This is the foundation for effective CIOs.”
What does the CIO role look like in the future? Most CIOs see a continued evolution. “The CIO role as it is defined today is not likely to exist [in the future]” one CIO remarked. “More investment is needed to incorporate IT into strategic business lines and management of the organization.” Other roles such as Chief Risk Officer (CRO), Chief Data Officer (CDO), and Chief Technology Officer (CTO) can overlap with the CIO. Federal government agencies will need to consider how governance can better align IT services to business / mission objectives. The CIO must continue to play a role as an innovator who engages the business in how to use technology to improve service delivery and performance, an integrator who helps the enterprise blend technologies together across multiple platforms and contracts, and the leader who creates a team that helps the agency execute its mission.
CIOs have a renewed focus on innovation to find new ways to use technology to perform operations faster and more cost effectively. CIOs cited innovation as a key tactic for successfully addressing tight budgets and resource constraints. So how are CIOs innovating? We heard a number of impressive success stories ranging from the development of new mobile apps using cloud-based platforms to finding better ways to analyze data to make decisions and protect the networks.
Application Modernization. One CIO said, “We’ve implemented new DevOps processes using Agile that have enabled us to get instant access to information it would have taken 6 months to see.” Another said, “We are moving legacy applications from the mainframe to the web. This will save us $160 million in people time by automating processes, enabling us to get supervisors from desks into the field.” This CIO acknowledged how hard it is to architect the web systems and relational databases to be as fast as the mainframe, but they’ve done this, and it’s paid big dividends.
Digital Services. Digital services are now becoming real. It’s been 2-3 years in the making. Now agencies are building their own digital services groups to identify other ways to serve their customers through the use of technology. The CIO Council is leading an IT solutions challenge which brings together a team of individuals who will work in small teams to solve IT challenges between now and September 2015. One such team is working to: “Create a cloud-shared services sandbox for all federal agencies to pilot technologies, develop applications, and model enterprise architecture.” And, we are just getting started.
Innovation — 5 Lessons Learned
1. Move legacy applications to the Web, enabling a mobile workforce
2. Leverage full capabilities of cloud-based platforms to reduce cost and increase efficiency
3. Create cloud-shared services for agencies to develop and use applications
4. Embrace innovation through modernized business processes and practices
5. Use contracting approaches that encourage industry to deliver new solutions.
Improvements in Data Analytics through Internet of Things. CIOs are also beginning to leverage the internet of things (IoT) to improve efficiency and save money. One CIO said, “We are leveraging IoT devices and better analytics to more effectively track and manage energy consumption. Using new devices enabled us to see situations where buildings had heaters and chillers on at the same time, and make adjustments to our systems to prevent this. This change has reduced energy consumption across the portfolio by 27 percent.” Many CIOs see IoT offering the potential for breakthrough performance in the coming years.
Advances in use of the Cloud. Leveraging the full capability of cloud-based development platforms was cited by some CIOs as an innovation that helps reduce costs. “We have used cloud to reduce our lifecycle costs by 90 percent and bring applications to market in 70 percent less time.” Another CIO said, “Our move to cloud email has given our 17,000 staff back two hours per month where they don’t need to manage their email boxes and given them 400 times more storage than before.” Another said, “We have improved our DevOps efficiency through the use of a global cloud platform because our global organization can access hardware and software tools needed for development from a common application any place in the world.” Another said, “We can turn around an application in the cloud in a week, when it used to take months.” Cloud is here to stay.
Increased Sophistication in Cybersecurity. A few CIOs cited cyber innovations. “We created a new Regional Security Stack system that reduced the overall number of security stacks from approximately 1,000 worldwide to just 50. This has enabled us to better defend ourselves while reducing costs.” Another innovation that will benefit government and the private sector involves advanced data standards for securely discovering and exchanging cyber threat information that will become available for improved network protection appliances and endpoint security tools. CIOs are eager for continued innovations in this area of growing concern.
Keys to successful innovation include involving employees in identifying innovations, and putting in place policies that do not reprimand failure but rather encourage the pursuit of new ideas and methods. One CIO said, “It is my job to … protect my team from anti-change criticism while they work to identify newer, smarter ways of doing things.” One area where innovation is needed is acquisition, specifically Agile contracting. As the Professional Services Council’s Acquisition Policy Survey reported in January 2015, while innovation was identified as a high priority for senior government acquisition leaders at OMB and the Department of Defense (DoD), the implementation of these objectives by the mid- and field-level acquisition workforce wasn’t always occurring. CIOs agreed this was critical for continued innovation.
Four years after the push for rapid cloud adoption through the “Cloud First Strategy”, agency cloud adoption is still slow, with only 8 percent of respondents indicating that they are where they want to be regarding their cloud adoption strategy. One CIO said, “We need a stronger strategy and vision that identifies how we can deploy more to the cloud securely and how it will benefit the organization and our stakeholders.”
While many CIOs see cloud computing as a platform to accelerate the adoption of innovative development approaches and solutions, today most have only tackled the low-hanging fruit. “We’ve tackled the easy stuff, moving email and web sites to the cloud. Now, we are looking at how we can use a more Agile set of tools for application development in the cloud.” Agencies are now looking for a common data platform that can provide them with infrastructure as a service, platform as a service, and software as a service. A number said they are beginning to pilot use of cloud-based development platforms to reduce costs while enabling collaboration by developers in multiple locations. CIOs believe that moving to cloud-based DevOps can improve speed of delivery and collaboration, and help automate processes like testing and verification, releases, and infrastructure updates.
Cloud — 5 Lessons Learned
1. Establish a risk-based security model on data that is stored
2. Do a total cost of ownerships assessment to find savings
3. Think about compliance and integrated cloud offerings
4. Work collaboratively with technology stakeholders
5. Plan ahead and establish a clear roadmap for the future
Is Public, Private or Hybrid the Best Fit? The types of cloud being used are mixed, and in part, reflect the nature of work being moved to the cloud. Forty-six percent of CIOs and CISOs surveyed use private cloud, 39 percent use public cloud and 15 percent use hybrid cloud technology in their organization.
Does Cloud Save Money? Interviewees had an appreciation of the potential cost reductions associated with moving to the cloud, but had mixed opinions about whether savings would be achieved by their agency. “Building out the use of commercial scale cloud capabilities will provide 70 percent cost reduction in hosting costs,” said one CIO. Another CIO said, “[There is] interest within the agency for moving to the cloud for budgetary reasons. However, the total cost of ownership remains unknown.” As we stated last year, rigorous cloud planning and an understanding of IT costing before migration are critical success factors in could migration.
Success Factors for Cloud Migration.“Cloud means something different to every person you ask. What are we actually trying to do by moving to the cloud? Are we getting better security with cloud? Are we saving enough money? Is this beneficial to resource management and utilization?” Survey respondents noted that you cannot underestimate the work needed to develop a strategy governing how to move applications to the cloud. Those who aren’t where they want to be are working diligently on developing a strategy that outlines what can be moved, the requirements and associated workload, supported by market surveys and detailed cost analyses to see how available solutions fit their needs. One CIO remarked, “We don’t know the opportunities of what we can do with the cloud. What does the interface look like? How do we manage the environment? How do we establish the security boundaries?”
It’s easy to lose sight of how cloud migration impacts users. “How will things be delivered to users? How much will it cost? These should be more important than where something will be hosted.” Another respondent pointed out migration is really a transformation effort and will require extensive change management. “We have a challenge getting our Inspectors General (IG) to understand that in the event of an incident, they cannot knock down a door, shut down a server and take it. Email was tried in the cloud, but the IG stopped it.” The CIO Council can play a role in helping educate IGs and the Government Accountability Office (GAO) on how and why cloud makes sense to make it easier for CIOs to navigate through situations like that cited above. Another CIO cited the recent addition of the Cloud SIN on the GSA IT 70 schedule should simplify cloud acquisition.
Agencies across the federal sector agreed on the importance of establishing guidelines to procure cloud technologies (i.e., types of IT procurement contracts that are acceptable) and continue to utilize them in the future (i.e., guidelines around cybersecurity/data protection). One CIO advised, “They need to educate their procurement team on cloud and how to acquire it.” Another remarked, “Cost of licensing is going to proliferate out of control. We are creating a governance process to get this under control.”
Integration Challenges. Another CIO mentioned the integration challenges that can exist in certain cloud environments, such as the difficulty in integrating an asset management application with a different vendor’s financial system in their native cloud environment. The CIO is now contemplating bringing the asset management application back in house. Other CIOs commented on the integration challenges that can be experienced with cloud migration, such as single sign on, ensuring your software works on provider’s platform, application rationalization – what can and can’t go – and capability to manage millions of transactions per day without performance degradation. Another said, “Harder than we thought. We may see savings down the line but it’s too early to know.”
All cloud providers aren’t created equal. “The incident response for the Cloud through our vendor (one of [the] top providers) has not been as responsive as expected for certain problems including Personally Identifiable Information (PII) and malware. We need real-time support. If an incident occurs, we submit requests in the form of tickets to our vendor who in turn identifies someone to help provide a solution. In several instances, we know more information than they do as they are more accustomed to selling and not incident response.” “There isn’t an advantage of going to the cloud since the support is now outsourced which can cause slow response times and inadequate support.” “We haven’t seen any benefits yet. We are leasing services through the department and finding it a challenge to manage services and costs.” “No federal cloud will be capable of doing what commercial cloud providers will do in five years. Established providers offer the latest technology and security at competitive prices.”
Cloud security is a top concern. Cloud security is a top concern. Oftentimes organizations are hesitant to adopt certain cloud technologies due to perceived data security concerns. A means to overcome federal agencies’ data security concerns could be to examine organizations’ internal private cloud security regulations. One respondent stated that to overcome data security concerns related to the cloud “[we] need to be aware of cybersecurity; [and that] different data requires different security.” One CIO said, “100 percent of our cloud is currently private. From a policy perspective, this translates into everything being treated as “High,” or to the level of top secret material. No one else does this and [this] needs to be reexamined.” It is encouraging to note that commercial cloud implementations like the ones at CIA and other intelligence activities are dispelling myths around security and helping to focus the debate on ensuring the right level of security for each situation. Data needing extra attention and planning includes PII and classified information. How do we manage PII in the cloud?
The proliferation of mobile devices and demand of citizens for access to services online anytime continues to grow. A recent Pew study cited that 40 percent of smartphone users had looked up government services or information online, and 43 percent looked up information about a job. Forbes reported there was a 26 percent increase in telework between 2013 and 2014. One CIO commented, “work is what we do, not where we are.” So how do CIOs gauge their ability to enable employees and citizens to work in this mobile world? It depends.
Agencies have made advances in telework, with more than half commenting that they were near or exactly where they want to be in mobile enablement of their workforce.
“Mobile maturity level is trending positive,” one CIO noted. Another commented, “[Our] entire organization is remote, all telework – [we] have people in all 50 states.” Others responded that they are making progress with mobility efforts, but “cannot fully adopt a mobile workforce until changes are made to increase hotel options.” Culturally, they notice that the younger generation requires mobility, while older generations are having a hard time adjusting. CIOs also expressed concerns around management, stating that teleconferencing is not yet seamless and productivity and performance are still hard to judge.
Resolving issues around teleworking is important for the future. One CIO noted, “Strong teleworking capacity is key to attracting and retaining talent, especially from industry and academia.” But it’s not just staff who expect work-from-anywhere flexibility, customers do as well. “… [the] industry and customer is driving us that way. Can’t be tethered to the desk…need the ability to always work… and buy it as a service.” Another CIO said, “Mobility has saved [our] organization $30 million per year. We don’t have to wait on people to come back from sick leave or wait on alternate work schedules. We keep things going – snow days don’t matter and we can be closer to customer, and hire talent wherever they reside.” CIOs want and are helping to achieve a mobile, resilient workforce that is self-provisioning and can access critical systems securely.
Laptops vs. Mobility. As we analyzed the discussions, it was clear that remote enablement is accomplished primarily through secure laptops, and most agency employees can’t yet do the majority of their work securely from tablets or phones. “Mobility is different than desktop,” said one respondent. Another said, “We are really good at it conceptually, but our systems haven’t caught up. For example, the quality of our VoIP is not good; therefore, it’s not used. We still have some ways to go to get the tools we need.”
Video conferencing is sometimes used, but not used across all agencies. Many agencies are comfortable with collaborative meeting spaces but don’t have an enterprise approach. CIOs envision continued improvements in mobile enablement of legacy applications for employees using tablets and mobile devices, but they aren’t there yet. We will continue to see a push for mobility maturity, along with of the government’s enterprise systems, and app development capabilities. Agencies want a mobile, resilient workforce in the future to access business-critical systems from anywhere with key pieces of equipment. “We need access to data from any place and any time securely. Legacy apps don’t behave well when you are mobile, and it shouldn’t matter.”
Digital Services Competence is in its nascent stage. Externally, CIOs agree they can’t do business with customers and citizens electronically today at the level of maturity they desire. “Allowing our customers to get business done with us in a mobile-friendly fashion? We’re not there yet,” said one CIO. “Customer lifecycle journey is in process. Systems are still browser-based … [we’re] still [in] the 90s world.” Customers want to see more apps for phones and tablets and view government websites on-the-go. Even search engines are creating algorithms to return results on a mobile device based on how mobile-friendly the website ranks. Agencies are experimenting with creation of mobile apps and app stores. It seems there could be a greater opportunity for sharing what’s being done across the government. Another respondent said, “we should stay out of [the] application-writing business but [we] need mobile tools.” Agencies overall responded that they need better mobile platforms and more effective strategies and tools and data control but that it can be hard to break out of legacy systems.
Mobility — 5 Challenges to Mobile
1. Containerization of data based on risk level and policies and rules
2. Recognition of the nature of information on mobile devices
3. Encryption, not mingling of personal and business activities
4. Development and adoption of mobile best practices
5. Mobile Device Management (MDM) to enable security enforcement
“Our agency has developed many apps. The issue is not app development, but app utilization,” one CIO commented. “How is the mobile platform being used effectively and does it change the customer outcome? We’ll see more mobile demand for increasing how we interact with our customers but [we] need to do a better job of understanding customer/user needs and experience before we develop apps that we assume they want.” Recent OMB policy requiring CIOs to create digital services groups has created significant buzz and focus on this area, and CIOs are confident they will make strides here in the coming year.
Challenges are present in the drive for mobility as well. CIOs reported on mobility roadblocks such as data security, vulnerabilities in personal devices, cultural shifts, and realizing the payoffs. Today, employees are demanding access to information and people from anywhere at any time. Successfully addressing the need to do trusted computing from untrusted devices will be a crucial next step in raising the bar on cybersecurity while ensuring the flow of information required for mission results.
“Ninety-four percent of large federal information technology projects over the past 10 years were unsuccessful — more than half were delayed, over budget, or didn’t meet user expectations, and 41.4 percent failed completely.”3 With that sort of track record, it is no wonder CIOs agree that grand-scale federal IT programs are often fraught with risks and nearly impossible to implement without failing. CIOs stated that large programs like healthcare.gov are working on trying to achieve an almost impossible task: “elicit coordinated, purposeful action from a collection of entities that don’t know each other, don’t trust each other, have conflicting objectives, and face diverging incentives.”
Most CIOs acknowledged the scope of large IT projects and the ability to manage them was the biggest challenge. The requirements and needs of customers of large IT solutions inevitably change over time and the larger an implementation effort is, the more this introduces vulnerabilities, which can result in mismanagement of risks, costs and schedules. CIOs believe that clear contract requirements in combination with proper management of performance-based contracts could set clear paths for success in incremental deliveries. Ensuring you have an adequate, honest approach for evaluating the health of large programs is also critical to know if you have what one CIO called, “Watermelon projects. They look green on the outside but they’re red inside. Everything looks great until you deliver and then it blows up.”
CIOs also identified that large IT projects and weak contract / project management are closely related to finding enough experienced program managers. The Project Management Institute’s (PMI) Certified Project Management Professionals (PMP) are sought after as noted by a respondent who expressed interest in adding PMP-credentialed resources to their agency’s talent pool. These certifications and programs are very valuable, but the challenge with all such programs and certifications is to ensure those certifications can be supported by experience, commensurate with the needs of the program. “We have major and minor investments. Major are supposed to be level 3 certified, but we do not have 24 PMs to manage those.” As described by one respondent, “We didn’t start with the strongest base of project management skills and we’re continuing to evolve from that foundation, including agile project management.”
We focus on [the] latest and greatest technology — without thinking about the change management.
So how are programs being developed? Most CIOs are working to make large programs a thing of the past. According to one CIO, “large federal IT contracts are becoming the exception, not the rule.” In 2012, OMB identified shortcomings associated with the “grand-design” IT development approach and recommended an alternative solution, aimed at reducing government investment risk and financial exposure. In its “Contracting Guidance to Support Modular IT Development,” OMB presents the modular approach to the development lifecycle and the anticipated results. Most CIOs are working diligently to move to an agile approach. One CIO said, “We break large programs into smaller projects [under] $1 million [and in] five to six month [increments].” They also cited a number of other best practices. One CIO said, “Focusing on soft risks, like stakeholder adoption and ownership is critical and doesn’t always get the emphasis it needs.” CIOs also said they can’t be afraid to cancel projects when things aren’t going well.
Modular IT Development Strategies/Agile
Increasingly, Agile delivery techniques are being used to address large IT project challenges and to deliver usable functionality and value in a modular, adaptive fashion. Valuing the method’s emphasis on communication, demonstration, feedback, iteration, and working software, CIOs are steadily moving towards Agile. 91% of CIO respondents report some form of Agile adoption.
In many cases Agile adoption is emergent; only one-third of surveyed CIOs report that Agile is their default methodology. Agile usage varies from agency to agency. Some agencies are working to pilot the method; others have established proven team-level agile practices and are now working to use Agile at scale. One respondent noted the benefits of Agile stating, “47% of the projects on the OMB dashboard are using Agile, and have seen an average decrease in delivery time of 21 days.”
Citing uncertainty and innovation conservatism, respondents report a reluctance to fully adopt Agile. One CIO said, “We are concerned about innovation and moving into anything other than established business processes. Individuals fear failure and oversight organization (IG, Congress, GAO, etc.) repercussions.”
When asked about Agile lessons learned, CIOs site the importance of Agile training and skill set development,industry expertise, coaching, metrics, management reporting, Product Owner involvement, and OCIO and business unit collaboration.
Agile — 5 Challenges to Implementation
1. Inadequate Agile training
2. Confusion over the roles and responsibilities of members
3. Inadequate management rigor
4. Lack of DevOps and collaboration functions
5. Entrenched acquisition practices to support adaptive IT
Use of iteration – to balance feature, resource, and schedule decisions – was also reported as an important lesson. On this topic, one CIO stated: “I would say our failure of acting as our own system integrator, is our biggest challenge. By breaking up the work, we are able to see smaller failures, which are far easier to manage.”
Some agencies are expanding the use of Agile, beyond IT, into other management domains, such as operations and acquisition. For example, one CIO stated: “Rather than sending out a Request for Proposal (RFP) with a list of [system] requirements and getting responses back that don’t really work for us, we are aiming to have a more agile approach.”
Increasingly, CIOs acknowledge that solutions cannot be totally defined up front. CIOs are using Agile to shift focus from adherence to predictive plans to delivery of value. Many respondents report that they are forgoing up-front development of comprehensive requirements specifications. Instead, Statements of Objectives (SOO) and similar acquisition techniques are being used to encourage agility and innovation, to improve IT investment value, and to increase IT return on investment (ROI).
Agencies at the vanguard of Agile adoption have set their sights on improving acquisition agility. This thinking is consistent with oversight organization guidance, such as the Capital Programming Guide, which states: “Agencies should, to the maximum extent possible, consider breaking large acquisitions into smaller, more manageable segments or modules. Each module should be economically and programmatically viable (i.e., useful).”
Agile — Best Practices
1. Establish disciplined, smart, simple standard agile practices and train teams
2. Collaborate and communicate; increase interaction between developers and product owners
3. Define ‘ready’ and ‘done’ to ensure that stories are complete, understood and implemented correctly
4. Steer development toward demonstrable value, not adherence to predictive plans
5. Measure to drive action and focus; use inspect and adapt metrics to drive improvements
Despite guidance aimed at improving agility and progress on this front, CIOs report that acquisition challenges remain. Respondents advise that traditional procurement and contract management practices do not fully support Agile IT delivery methods. Moreover, survey responses indicate that adoption of Agile acquisition practices has proven difficult, especially where acquisition professionals are tenured and there is a reluctance to change entrenched business processes.
To overcome this reluctance, respondents report that agencies are experimenting with contracts that organize Agile work within contract line item numbers (CLINs) that allow for iterative delivery and inspection and provide the flexibility to limit long-term commitment to [potentially underperforming] contractors.
With regularity, oversight organizations, like GAO and the OMB, express concern about expansive federal IT programs that have taken years and failed at alarming rates. Importantly, CIOs understand that Agile is no ‘silver bullet.’ Agile is a useful technique – one that complements management competence.
Data analytics continued to be an area of focus for federal CIOs. While respondents discussed the progress they have been able to make over the past year, they continued to encounter challenges to fully realizing the benefits of mature data-driven capabilities.
The level of data management maturity varies across federal agencies. Those that employed more mature processes indicated that they were able to use data to drive business decisions. With over 80 percent of respondents noting that their data-driven capabilities were in the early stages of maturity, these agencies identified the need for help in managing their data and developing a data strategy. Successful data management programs usually include strategic plans that align with the agency’s mission and business strategies. Executive leadership involvement and support are also key, along with having an established governance structure to guide and prioritize data activities and establish policies and regulations for managing the data.
Our respondents expressed that in recent years, efforts have led to improved data quality; however, they indicated they had a long way to go. Challenges expressed included siloed data not easily accessible across the enterprise and across domains. According to a recent Federal Times report, by 2024, agencies will spend $16.5 billion storing redundant data that they won’t use. This can lead to the inability of agencies to easily merge various data sets to assess new scenarios, address broader questions, and report at the department level. So even if data creation and processing at the transaction level was under control, improvements are still needed.
CIO participants indicated that they would like to serve their user communities better. In order to achieve this goal, they want to improve their data offerings so that users are spending less time cleaning and organizing their data and more time analyzing and garnering intelligence from their data. Agencies are leveraging Master Data Management (MDM) to help achieve this goal. MDM is the implementation of policies, procedures, and technology to define, conform, and distribute a uniform and consistent representation of the key data concepts throughout the enterprise. Data concepts that are commonly mastered include chart of accounts, products, vendors, customers, etc. Most respondents are looking to the Department level for guidance around MDM, and some are waiting for MDM implementations at the agency level. MDM is mentioned as being critical to Open Data initiatives, data accuracy programs, and improving effectiveness of analytics solutions.
Open data and data transparency are another common topic mentioned by agencies as demands for data access increases and legislation such as the DATA Act are enacted. One CIO suggested, “[We] need to make data accessible; make it uniform to look at collectively integrating/consolidating data warehouses; consolidating and collapsing, data mashing from multiple related data sets.” CDOs are gaining presence in government agencies and are expected to drive this along with other data management objectives. Even so, 67 percent of respondents indicated that the CIO is involved in preparing for the DATA Act and providing OMB and Treasury with feedback on the initiative. Respondents noted that increased transparency and easy access to data provides for increased insights, but also raises privacy concerns.
The public sector experienced nearly 50 times more cyber incidents than any other industry in 2014. It is no surprise, therefore, that cybersecurity remains the top priority and challenge for CIOs and CISOs. Socially engineered spam, phishing, spyware and other external threats from cyber criminals, nation states, and rogue actors are more sophisticated and persistent than ever before. CIOs and CISOs must also be aware of and manage internal threats from staff who unintentionally create risks from forgotten passwords, prohibited downloads, or lost devices.
The traditional methods of boundary protection are no longer sufficient. Cybersecurity must address verifying risks from multiple threat vectors across a multitude of networks and devices inside and outside an agency. Ninety percent of CIOs surveyed experienced an increase in cyber incidents in 2014. Twenty-eight percent reported a 51-100 percent increase in cyber threats. A number of CIOs pointed out that the increase in threats could be due to having more effective approaches and tools to monitor and track such threats.
Cybersecurity spending is increasing too, but not proportionally to the increase in threats. From our results, 10 percent reported a decrease in cybersecurity spending, and 44 percent of CIOs cited a moderate increase of 0-10 percent in cybersecurity spending. As a result of this trend, CIOs are prioritizing buying innovative security tools, recruiting top talent and increasing agency-wide security awareness.
One of the main challenges echoed by CIOs in this year’s survey was attracting top-tier security and privacy talent to the federal government. One of our interviewees attributed this dilemma to the “Talent War.” There is a difficulty across agencies in the federal sector to attract top talent because of limits on compensation and time to hire. Respondents pointed out that it is almost impossible to compete with the commercial sector which can offer much more lucrative salaries with bonuses. There is an on-going war for talent, and these impediments for the government are a significant hindrance. Issues about compensation caps similarly hinder government contractors’ ability to compete with the commercial cybersecurity market. There was also a level of concern with the current interview and hiring process and its ability to distinguish talent.
Due to spending restrictions, interviewees suggested shifting agency focus to metrics and tool innovation. Integrated security metrics shared across agencies will help identify trends and mitigate risks using shared services and resources. Interviewees suggested dashboards so senior executives have a better understanding of risks and can escalate issues to the appropriate stakeholders. The increase in collaboration with the CIO and the utilization of new tools will help agencies address their cyber threats in a tight budget environment.
While it is encouraging to see best practices like common security architectures, continuous monitoring, etc., being implemented, the need still remains to allow the rapid adoption of new approaches and ideas that will raise the bar on security while still allowing information sharing with unanticipated users and the ability to use untrusted devices for trusted computing.
Continuous Monitoring/Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation (CDM)
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) defines continuous monitoring as maintaining ongoing awareness of information security, vulnerabilities and threats to support organizational risk management decisions. The objective of continuous monitoring is to monitor an organization’s information, applications, networks, and systems and respond to risk accepting, avoiding/rejecting, transferring/sharing, or mitigating risk as situations change. From our interviews, we noticed a common trend of responses stating that continuous monitoring / continuous diagnostics and mitigation (CDM) has gotten off to a fast start but has not yet realized its full potential. CIOs have utilized a number of commercial and agency-specific tools to automate their monitoring, management, and remediation control of information and data flow and storage.
Continuous monitoring provides a broad range of benefits to federal agencies. First, it creates better awareness of cybersecurity and privacy in terms of knowing risks / vulnerabilities at early stages to minimize damage and remediate security risks. Continuous monitoring provides visibility into assets and leverages use of automated data feeds to quantify risk, ensure effectiveness of security controls and implement prioritized remedies. Respondents stressed the importance of replacing the every three-year assessment process of information systems under FISMA. This old process resulted in out-of-date security information and increased risk in vulnerabilities. Over the next year, CIOs expect continuous monitoring to have a greater impact through automated assessments, up-to-date information/data and immediate vulnerability detection and remediation.
It is evident that continuous monitoring is vital for the mitigation of security risk, but there are still some issues and challenges. First, in order for continuous monitoring to flourish, this must be a priority for the agency from a budget and resource perspective. Another challenge is the integration of CDM with other agency initiatives and operations as most current federal tools are U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) specific and oftentimes tailored to the DHS mission. As new tools are developed and agencies continue to collaborate, CDM and continuous monitoring should only expand in terms of agency use and government impact.
Continuous Monitoring— 5 Lessons Learned
1. Share issues and success within continuous monitoring/CDM across all government agencies
2. Prioritize training and awareness so employees can understand the CDM process
3. Take into consideration budgetary restraints and pick the right tools from CDM vendors
4. Report clearly on CDM data and share with management across agencies going forward
5. Ensure that your CDM solution meets compliance and syncs with agency’s mission and goals
As agencies expand and become more mature from an IT perspective, the necessity for proper security safeguards of personal identifiable information and data is increasing. Many of the respondents stated their main privacy priority is to accurately reconcile OMB guidance with NIST processes to delineate responsibilities with the Chief Privacy Officer. Agencies have adopted “privacy core groups” to understand general counsel and OMB requirements as well as implementation methods. These core groups also are in charge of leading privacy training to spread awareness in their agencies.
Agencies are facing challenges when it comes to the issue of privacy. First, many respondents said there are current issues with the infrastructure and organization structure. For example, some agencies have separate privacy offices, which brings up an issue of integration. Next, some agencies have not appointed a Chief Privacy Officer. Without proper delegation, the importance of privacy is diminished at the agency. In addition, CIOs are having issues deciding how, when and what data to share. It is important for the privacy offices to explain the need to share certain data and the acceptance of the risk that comes with data sharing. Finally, a key theme from our responses was the need for a general and automated system for privacy safeguards. From a reporting and risk-mitigation perspective, an automated tool or system is a priority for many agencies.
CIOs and CISOs identified multiple changes that need to be made to the acquisition process, to include a more streamlined acquisition approach, increased flexibility and accessibility of contract vehicles, and faster ways to adopt new technology. Acquisition is one of the largest problems, as it delays access to technology.
A key challenge identified in the survey is that contracting officers often work independently from program management teams. With a lack of aligned incentives and competing priorities, this fragmentation of the “acquisition team” results in the misuse of lowest priced, technically available; a reliance on rigid statements of work; and limited adoption of alternative approaches and best practices – all to the detriment of getting the best results for the government.
Agencies continue to face budget uncertainty and limited acquisition resources. While much still remains to be done to bring speed, agility, and innovation into government IT contracting, this year’s survey did identify some improvements being made. Organizations are looking to make systematic changes that provide new operating models to meet agency needs, managing suppliers while still giving them the flexibility to innovate, and ensuring acquisition professionals use data analytics, market demand, user requirements, and acquisition strategies that help deliver better results and ensure customer engagement.
To help improve the acquisition process, OMB is exploring practices to address different aspects of the procurement lifecycle, including the Acquisition 360 program. This transaction-based feedback tool allows agencies to identify strengths and weaknesses in their acquisition processes with the focus on pre- and post-award activities and contract execution. Some agencies have taken a different approach by investing in vendor management offices to help identify, implement, and sustain specific strategies to reduce cost and create value by working collaboratively with IT vendors. Additionally, OMB is offering low-cost training opportunities through communication channels such as the Behind the Buy podcast series, a design approach that allows procurement and program offices to listen and learn about innovative IT contracting strategies. One CIO offered an innovative approach, “[It] would be ideal to have prequalified DevOps firms where I could release Task orders with no protest; goal would be to come up with requirement, procure, and award within one month ($5-$10 million opportunities).”
There is a profound interest among CIOs and CISOs in redefining the integration of acquisition activities, processes, and information/data to drive results earlier in the development lifecycle, generate cost savings, and improve supplier relationships. To achieve this goal, agencies will need to use existing flexibilities in the FAR and develop better ways to evaluate contractor performance in a fast-paced environment with rapidly changing requirements. Recently released tools such as the TechFAR Handbook provide additional guidance to agencies on best practices and a compilation of FAR provisions that are relevant to agile development. Another priority effort is the adoption of category management – a new, strategic approach that will enable the federal government to buy smarter and act more like a single enterprise by identifying core categories of spend, sharing best practices, and providing more streamlined solutions. The goal of category management will be to provide a more transparent federal procurement process by empowering agencies with centralized spending data and contract intelligence to enable them to make more informed purchases that better respond to an agency’s needs while leveraging budget resources and benefiting taxpayers.
5 Best Practices
1. Improve handoffs and limit surprises through the use of an integrated team that includes legal, procurement, CIO and CFO
2. Stop use of LPTA service contracts
3. Better align procurement and budgeting
4. Improve education of IT staff in procurement and assign a liaison to procurement
5. Use strong performance metrics
IT Shared Services
An overwhelming majority of CIOs and CISOs we interviewed stated they are currently using or plan to implement some form of shared services, with the majority focused on support activities. Key service areas identified by respondents included human resources, time and attendance, case management, financial management, acquisition, administrative, software licensing, email, data center hosting, analytics, cloud and application hosting. Some respondents indicated that, per OMB’s mandate, their agency’s financial management systems may move to a federal shared service provider. One respondent expressed concern as they noted that “federal shared service providers’ budgets are difficult to understand, as they are not structured like businesses, nor are they similar to traditional IT budgets.”
Three shared services models primarily used by our respondents included interagency, intra-agency, and commercially outsourced services. One respondent said that they have become a shared service provider within their own department, allowing others to utilize their IT commodity contracts.
Interviewees shared multiple best practices related to this area, emphasizing that there is no substitute for adequate upfront planning and risk assessments. They also indicated that throughout the process, the teams must remain customer-focused, ensuring that changes made will provide customers with the services they need. A strong, well-documented governance structure was also identified as a best practice, allowing decision makers to be involved in key decisions that will impact customers. Finally, strong Service Level Agreements were identified as an essential component. “While these may be more useful when dealing with private vendors,” stated one CIO, “there needs to be a clear understanding of the services provided.”
What about the use of LPTA?
“When we have to re-compete a contract, we are often forced to use lower cost providers and get C players when they really want to hold on to the A and B players that they are working with and are for whom they are willing to pay a premium. Be more concerned about getting the right result — time to get things done as an example. Cost is weighed too highly and value is about more than that.”
LPTA is too common, resulting in poor services. Contracts often end up being re-competed before fully exercised so cost savings from contracts change to LPTA provider are lost when cost of acquisition is added back in. LPTA doesn’t have a place for service contracts. Some agencies reported 100 percent of hardware/software contracts are LPTA and as many as 60 percent for services. Others that are best value are actually evaluated more like LPTA where procurement staffs are not doing true best value trade offs.
Future Ready Workforce
According to the President’s Council on Jobs and Competitiveness, “In the 21st century global marketplace, a nation’s economy can only be as strong as the skills of its people.” With budget cuts, hiring freezes, and Baby Boomer retirement, agencies must adopt new approaches to recruit, maintain, and develop a workforce of highly skilled employees.
Recruitment and retention efforts are critical to promoting engagement with younger potential and current members of the federal workforce. For every federal IT worker under 30, there are 10 over 50. CIOs hope that by adopting newer technologies this will help attract fresh, forward-thinking candidates who can begin specializing in areas such as: applications, infrastructure, cybersecurity, systems engineering, and project management. Agencies have begun adopting new strategies to attract the millennial demographic by launching mobile career apps that notify users of job openings, accepting online applications, and adopting the Pathways program.
While USAJobs continues to be the centralized job opportunity location for the federal government, agencies must continue to expand awareness through advertisements at job fairs, social media platforms such as Twitter, and websites that specialize in connecting entry-level employees to employers. To improve retention of current employees, leadership needs to understand what drives employee satisfaction and to build those incentives into the work environment and culture. Agencies have begun providing regular feedback to further reinforce employees’ sense of purpose, as well as boosting moral through nonmonetary incentives such as developmental assignments, agency awards, and even thank-you letters from leadership.
A mission-ready, productive workforce also requires improved training and development opportunities. With constrained budgets, the majority of agencies face added pressure to hire from within, forcing employees to handle increased workloads and unfamiliar tasks. Sixty-three percent of respondents stated their agencies were “not at all” to “insufficiently” equipped to support their talent development needs. Some respondents noted employees do not take advantage of training, thereby contributing to the federal skills gap. To promote cost-effective training through cross-agency collaboration, the Department of State successfully implemented an inter-departmental mentorship program. This effort has provided employees with exposure to a broader range of experiences, which is also evident in their recent proposal to provide intra- and inter-departmental rotations and sabbaticals from federal service.
To fully capitalize on the benefits of investing in workforce engagement and development, the federal government must also invest in succession planning and retiree knowledge sharing. The potential knowledge gap is evident: GAO predicts that over a third of the federal workforce will be retirement-eligible by September 2017, and 62 percent of retired federal employees said they did not train a new employee before their retirement, according to a Federal News Radio survey. The federal government has responded by offering mentoring and training opportunities through the rehiring of retirees and President Obama’s Phased Retirement program. Though a step in the right direction, there are constraints on the number of reemployed annuitants, and many agencies have yet to adopt these knowledge-sharing programs.
5 Best Practices:
1. Improved workforce capability planning.
2. Strengthening IT training and certification programs.
3. Industry/government rotations.
4. Improvements in recruiting tools and methods.
5. Flexible work arrangements.
What's To Come?
Interviewees estimated that currently 39 percent of the federal workforce are federal employees, while 61 percent are contractors. When asked how this will change over the next four years, respondents indicated there will be a decrease in contractor support, on average moving towards a workforce composed of 51 percent federal employees and 49 percent contractors. While these figures only represent estimates provided by interviewees, if more work continues to shift from contractors to federal employees, retention and training initiatives will be critical in mitigating the skills gap and stimulating employee morale. For stronger succession planning, agencies need to engage in comprehensive analysis of workforce demographic and development data to support strategic investment.
It’s clear from this year’s 25th anniversary survey that CIOs and other federal IT executives play a central role in the success of their agencies. CIOs continue to be called on to deliver more innovation, better performance, more return on investment and an enhanced customer experience – all while protecting crucial systems from a rapidly expanding set of threats that continue to morph and become more sophisticated.
Some trends are apparent across government IT from our interviews. Like their private-sector counterparts, mobility – of both the workforce and the information systems – remains a high priority for CIOs, their customers and staff. Applications are rapidly moving to cloud-based models, providing gains in performance and reductions in cost. An overwhelming majority of CIOs and CISOs we interviewed stated they are currently using or plan to implement some form of shared services, with the majority focused on support activities.
In the wake of failed launches of large-scale IT programs, federal IT managers are quickly moving to embrace modular development where failures, if they happen, can be more easily managed. In this Agile-powered environment, agencies are going through a culture change focused on building and delivering quickly, allowing for experimentation and failure, and ultimately faster time to stakeholder satisfaction.
However, several factors impede achievement of the numerous objectives that land in the CIO’s ever-expanding inbox. One challenge is the stiff competition for IT talent. Only 10 percent of the federal workforce is under 30 compared to 25 percent of private-sector employees. Another hindrance is the fear of failure hanging over professionals that work in many federal agencies, sometimes stifling the innovation that is expected from IT departments. Finally, agencies continue to face budget uncertainty and limited acquisition resources.
While there are certainly challenges to be surmounted in the federal IT sphere, there are many gains to be celebrated, and even more to look forward to with digital convergence and a mobile-enabled revolution on the horizon. CIOs are poised to become the innovative leaders of a future federal government that is more responsive, nimble and cost-effective than ever before in our nation’s history.
Appendix and Acknowledgements
About This Survey
This survey is sponsored and led by the Professional Services Council (PSC) and PSC member company Grant Thornton. Grant Thornton has surveyed federal CIOs for 25 years. In recent years, the survey has expanded to include CISOs as well. Through these surveys, top IT officials, oversight groups, and congressional staff shared their views on challenges facing federal CIOs and the federal IT community. As in past years, Grant Thornton has received outstanding support from the federal CIO/CISO community in conducting this survey.
To preserve anonymity, we do not attribute responses to specific individuals. Readers may download copies of this and prior surveys, and please click here to download the full appendix for this report.
We thank federal CIOs and CISOs for participating in this year’s survey. We also acknowledge the support and contributions of the sponsoring organizations and the time and expertise of the individuals listed below. To obtain copies of this report and the survey questionnaires, visit any of the websites listed below.
PROFESSIONAL SERVICES COUNCIL
4401 Wilson Blvd #1110, Arlington, VA 22203
David M. Wennergren
Senior Vice President, Technology
GRANT THORNTON LLP, GLOBAL PUBLIC SECTOR
333 John Carlyle Street, Suite 400
Alexandria, VA 22314
Principal, Information Technology